Mandaic, the most Southeastern Aramaic dialect spoken in antiquity in Babylonia (Mesene, Characene, Khuzistān), reflects similarities to Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, both belonging to the Eastern Middle Aramaic branch. Although most scholars located the origin of the baptizing community in the East Jordan regions (Mark Lidzbarski, Rudolf Macuch, Kurt Rudolph) the Mandaeans are considered to spent a large part of their still controversial and mysterious history alongside the big rivers (Euphrates, Tigris, Kārūnriver) in the southern borderland between present-day Iraq and Iran.